Revista Horizontes: primavera/otoño 2011 | Año LIV Núms. 104-105
28 social network, such as Facebook (Alvarado, 2011). Clearly, many students are bringing their technological know-how into the classroom. However, video games have not been tested as a potential English language teaching tool in Puerto Rico, and it is currently unknown if students, specifically at the elementary level where formal English instruction begins, would be willing to use them to improve their vocabulary and speaking proficiency. Students who are gamers may not be willing to integrate their hobby with schoolwork, and those who do not play video games may be apprehensive about using the technology for their English language studies. If educators hope to create true bilingual citizens, then what is taught in the classroom must be actively used in the home and daily environment. Puerto Rican ESL learners do not have this opportunity under normal circumstances, and the variety of games, combined with the proliferation of high speed internet throughout the island, may offer a potential means by which learners can speak and interact in English in authentic, real time contexts that have consequences and are of genuine interest to them. Traditional teaching methods have not produced a bilingual populace, and it may be time to look for new alternatives. References Alvarado, J. (2011, May 27). Use of cell phones to surf internet surges in Puerto Rico, study finds. Caribbean Business . Retrieved from http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news03.php?nt_ id=57777&ct_id=1 Baleghizadeh, S. (2008). Societal bilingualism and second language education. Human Sciences , 56, 43-52. Bennett, S., Maton, K. & Kervin, L. (2008). The "digital natives" debate: A critical review of the evidence. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39 (5), 775-786. Donnelly, A., Jewett, P., Lamen, T. T. & Wilson, J. (2012, March). Under the influence of technology: Rethinking professional development. Language Arts, 89 (4), 263- 264. Gee, J. P. (2005). Good video games and good learning. Phi Cappa Phi Forum, 85 (2), 34-37. Gee, J. P. (2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Krashen, S. (2007, July). Free Voluntary web-surfing. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching , 3, 2-8. Ladd, H. & Rivera-Batiz, F. (2006). Education and economic development in Puerto Rico. In Collins, S., Bosworth, B. & Soto-Class, M. The Puerto Rican economy: Restoring growth (189-238). Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press. Puerto Rico. Department of Education. (2011). Radiography of the public school system. Retrieved from http://www.de.gobierno.pr/informes-para-la-comision- de-educacion-del-senado-de-puerto-rico Resnick, M. (1993). ESL and language planning in Puerto Rican education. TESOL Quarterly, 27 (2), 259-275. Squire, K. (2005). Changing the game: What happens when video games enter the classroom? Innovate , 1(6). Retrieved from http://www.innovateonline.info/pdf/ vol1_issue6/Changing_the_Game__What_Happens_ When_Video_Games_Enter_the_Classroom_.pdf Thomas, M. (Ed.). (2011). Deconstructing digital natives: Young people, technology and the new literacies. New York, NY: Routledge . U.S. Census Bureau. (2010) Place of birth by language spoken at home and ability to speak English in Puerto Rico. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/ tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_1 0_5YR_B06007PR&prodType=table VanDeventer, S. & White, J. (2002). Expert behavior in children’s video game play. Simulation & Gaming, 33 (1), 28-48. Vélez, J. (1996, June). Towards a language policy that addresses Puerto Rican reality. Rethinking English in Puerto Rico . Symposium conducted at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico. Waters, John K. (2007). On A Quest for English . Retrieved March 21, 2012 from http://thejournal.com/ articles/2007/10/01/on-a-quest-for-english.aspx With cell phones and laptops, students research diversity through social media. (2010, Nov 29). Targeted News Service, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/814767791?acco untid=28180 Wilson, J. L. (2012). Deconstructing digital natives: Young people, technology, and the new literacies. Language Arts, 89 (4), 263-264.