Primavera otoño 2020 (Año LXIII Núms. 122-123) Año LXIV Núm. 124-125 horizontes PRIMAVERA / OTOÑO 2021 PUCPR 42 systems controlling the respiratory and cardiac systems. However, researchers used deep breathing techniques for different emotions. Chin and Kales (2019) indicated that the breathing technique activated the body’s parasympathetic nervous system through entrainment effects between respiratory and heart rates. According to Serafim et al. (2019), deep breathing increased activation of the autonomic parasympathetic nervous system, which increased neural plasticity and altered information processing. They used deep breathing for psychological disorders, including managing stress by reducing anxiety and insomnia. Perciavalle et al. (2017) indicated deep breathing was a fundamental technique used in various relaxation methods, incorporating gigong, yoga, and progressive muscle relaxation. The deep breathing technique helped emotions and pain. This review will describe the role of cognitive control in emotions, including how the autonomic nervous system responded to these emotions. Also, we will examine the efficiency of the breathing technique on different emotions, including additional new points for future research. Main analysis Cognitive control is responsible for emotional control. Chen et al. (2020) described cognitive control as coordinating thoughts and actions to accomplish goal-directed behaviors. Cognitive control is a fundamental executive function process, including attention control, updating (working memory), shifting, and response inhibition. Chen et al. examined the development and heritability of capacity for cognitive control, including the association between cognitive control and IQ during early childhood and late adolescence in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs ranging from 6–18, compared to young adults from 24–34 years old. They found a strong relationship between IQ and cognitive control within each age group and during childhood and adolescence, suggesting that maturation of cognitive control can reinforce the development of general intelligence. General intelligence was associated with brain structures, including the anterior cingulate cortex, inferior and superior parietal lobule, and the dorsal prefrontal cortex. These are critical regions of the cognitive control network that implement cognitive control (Chen et al., 2020). However, Mackiewicz et al. (2017) established that cognitive control involved biasing towards task-relevant information and was implemented by a frontal-parietal network, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior parietal regions. Chen et al. and Mackiewicz et al. agree with the areas involved in cognitive control. The amygdala is another area that is involved in cognitive control. It may be affected by emotional context. Ravindranath et al. (2020) evaluated age-related variations in (1) inhibitory control behavioral responses related to emotional setting, (2) emotional stimuli perception, and (3) background functional connectivity while performing an inhibitory control task in an emotional setting. They hypothesized that adolescents would indicate more errors and slower responses within an emotional setting. From mid-adolescence to adulthood, patients reflected increased recognition of internal affective states, which may have increased the engagement of relevant amygdala-influenced cortical regions combined with enhanced cognitive control. Decreased managing of emotional arousal may have undermined adolescents’ capacity to control processes contributing to poor decision-making in emotional settings (Ravindranath et al., 2020). Cognitive control was involved in emotions, including emotional regulation as cognitive control. Emotional regulation was a